|Autonomous underwater vehicle, by StifynTonna, CC-BY-SA-3.0. SOURCE.|
The history of the field began with early explorers such as Captain James Cook, who mapped coastlines and explored the Great Barrier Reef. Another figure (though more well known for his theory of evolution) who contributed significant early research was Charles Darwin, who published a paper about coral reefs and atoll formation.
There are four branches of oceanography: physical oceanography (the temperature, density, pressure, and other properties of seawater), chemical oceanography (the composition and biogeochemical processes that affect it), marine geology (the structure and evolution of ocean basins), and marine ecology (also called biological oceanography; it is the study of ocean-dwelling plants and animals). There is also Ocean Engineering, which involves the design and manufacture of objects to be used in water. The overall field of oceanography incorporates biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics.
Information about currents, waves, ocean fronts, and variations in magnetic and gravitational fields are taken using special instruments, with recent technology such as satellites taking over for observations that were formerly made from aircraft, buoys, and ships; satellites are also capable of mapping the ocean surface, currents, waves, winds, phytoplankton levels, sea ice, rainfall, and sea surface temperature. Autonomous undersea vehicles (or AUVs) are another type of machine used that does not require people to be out on the water. Many measurements are now electronic, and probes that can test chemical and biological factors are being used and developed.
|Public domain image. SOURCE.|
Gene Carl Feldman
Gene Carl Feldman is an oceanographer who has been at NASA since 1985. His projects have included sea turtle conservation, the production, archival, and distribution of satellite data, SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor, which aimed to provide information on ocean color, or its "bio-optical properties"), hydrothermal vents, exploring the Kaikoura Canyon in New Zealand, and underwater dives. He has been part of programs involving the BBC, Discovery Channel, National Geographic Society, Cousteau Society, Smithsonian, and PBS, and he created the JASON Project with Robert Ballard, another oceanographer.
Video with Gene Carl Feldman talking about the Galapagos Islands and oceanography:
What's your favorite ocean or ocean-going animal? And just for speculation, do you think humans will ever live underwater, or at least develop the technology to do so?
***And I meant to mention this yesterday, but The Eagle's Aerial Perspective REACHED 1000+ FOLLOWERS! Rest assured, there will be a proper celebration post once the A-Z Challenge is over.***
-----The Golden Eagle